Hydrogen economy 2021: What is new on the H2 market?

The hydrogen economy evolves quick

In this hydrogen economy study we collected prices and technical data to look at a cost benefit analyses of hydrogen.
We found out that some hydrogen appliances can bring financial benefits in 2021.

Startup are found, experienced companies' come up with hydrogen parts, hydrogen component or elaborate hydrogen systems. At what price these hydrogen devices are sold, decides the breakeven point for the hydrogen investor. In this hydrogen study we collected prices and technical data to look at a cost benefit analyses.

For the passive income through hydrogen production, you need to the financial value of hydrogen in the market in 2022.

Why should we think about hydrogen projects for buildings?

Green hydrogen conversion has no impact on your environment. Hydrogen doesn't emit Carbon Dioxide CO2. Hydrogen is not toxic and doesn't pollute your surroundings. It is easy to produce Hydrogen. Investing in hydrogen technology is not only cutting your bill, but it might also generate income as you will understand after reading this abstract about hydrogen.

Contents

The hydrogen economy evolves quick 1

Why should we think about hydrogen projects for buildings? 1

What you should know about hydrogen 1

What is hydrogen worth? 1

How much costs a kg of hydrogen on a hydrogen station or filling station? 2

How much costs a kilogram of Hydrogen in a compressed cylinder? 2

What are the hydrogen prices in comparison with fossil fuels in bottles like gas? 3

What is the pressure of a Propane gas bottle? 3

What is the pressure in a butane container? 3

Energy quantities of hydrogen 4

How much Energy is in 1 kg of Hydrogen? H2 kWh/kg ? 4

What happens if you burn hydrogen? 4

How much Energy is in 1 cubic meter of Hydrogen? H2 kW hr/m³ ? 4

How much liters of water do I need to produce one liter of hydrogen? 4

What can you do with stored hydrogen? 5

High tech hydrogen systems 5

Low tech hydrogen systems 6

What hydrogen products are on the market in 2021 6

Two main electrolyser types are ready to be purchased 7

Cost of electrolysers 7

How to get prices for hydrogen electrolysers? 9

How can I compare electrolysis on the market? 9

What you should know about hydrogen

Before you can store you left renewable Energy through hydrogen you need to know the hydrogen market value and other energy sources like electricity or diesel.

What is hydrogen worth?

You can buy hydrogen on the market either at gas stations or in gas cylinders. There is an enormous price difference between portable products like cartridges to filling your hydrogen container, mostly hydrogen car, at a service area.

How much costs a kg of hydrogen on a hydrogen station or filling station?

The regulated price for Hydrogen is 9,5 €/kg at either 350 or 700 bar in Germany.
For cost benefit analysis of hydrogen we rather take 8,5 €/kg.
You could say, one kilogram of hydrogen is worth about 10 $ US Dollar at 350 Bar at a hydrogen station.

If you compare the hydrogen price at the gas station with fossil fuel or with the electricity from the grid you come up with the following calorific prices of H2.

  • fossile Hydrogen 28 Cent/Kilowatt hour
  • Strom 30 Cent/Kilowatt hour
  • Diesel 14 Cent/Kilowatt hour

How much costs a kilogram of Hydrogen in a compressed cylinder?

Hydrogen High Pressure Bottle sizes diamaters

Here you'll find the hydrogen cylinder formats, to see if they fit to your hydrogen house.

FillVolumePressurem at 0°Cincl. VATrelativeHightWidth
lbarkgMarket PriceEuro/kgm[m]
1,78102000,18105,79595,850,9750,14
8,89502000,89125,55141,421,6550,229
106,6860020010,651394,68130,921,90,77
8,89503001,33189,81142,541,6550,229
15160030015,981923,04120,351,90,77
Mean    133,81  

These prices are for fossil Hydrogen. (turquoise hydrogen)

The price for H2 in pressurized gas cylinders is about 4 Euro per Kilowatt-hour (4€/kWh 4€/kWhr).

If you want to buy hydrogen in a cylinder you can calculate about 130 Euro per kilogram. This is without bottle and transport.

What are the hydrogen prices in comparison with fossil fuels in bottles like gas?

1 kg Propane gas contains 12,87 kWh of Energy.
Propane costs around 1,6 €/kWh.
A big difference is the pressure.

What is the pressure of a Propane gas bottle?

It is relative to the ambient temperature. Propane won't evaporate below 8bar or 0,836 MPa (20 °C).

What is the pressure in a butane container?

The pressure varies with temperature, too and might be little more than 2bar.

A reasonable price for green hydrogen in a pressurized steel bottle could be approximately 130 €/kg.

The full pallet of 12 big hydrogen cylinders at 4500 PSI consists only 16 kg of hydrogen. Which leads us to the Hydrogen properties in brief.

Energy quantities of hydrogen

How much Energy is in 1 kg of Hydrogen? H2 kWh/kg ?

HydrogenDiesel
kWh/kgkWh/kg
33,3311,9
Kg CO2Kg CO2
03,14

A kilogram hydrogen has 33 kWh/kg. That is 3 times the energy of one kilogram of diesel fuel.

What happens if you burn hydrogen?

The gas will explode. There is no other emission than Water. In comparison with 1kg diesel it will just burn but emits 3,14 kg of Carbon Dioxide into the atmosphere. Burning hydrogen emits no CO2.

To burn hydrogen is not more dangerous than the gases we use in our households for decades like Methan, Butan and Propane. Hydrogen could even be considered less dangerous than natural gas because it is lighter than air.

How much Energy is in 1 cubic meter of Hydrogen? H2 kW hr/m³ ?

Calorific Value of

 

Hydrogen

Calorific value of

 

Diesel

kWh/m³kWh/m³
39700
Density of H2 kg / m³ 
0,08988845

One kilowatt hour (kw hr) per kilogram of hydrogen is the energy relative to the mass.
One kilowatt hour (kw hr) per cubicmeter of hydrogen is the energy relative to the volume.

How much liters of water do I need to produce one liter of hydrogen?

Theoretically you could produce 1240 liters of hydrogen gas with 1 liter of liquid water. Or in other words with 1 kg of water you could theoretically produce 110 g H2 and thus safe 3,6 kWh.

The practical waterfactor for electrolysers varies around 0,8 to 0,9 Liters of Water per Norm Cubic meter (l/Nm³) of Hydrogen.

Without reusing or recycling the water from hydrogen gas drying process, water losses will be high. Practically you need about 1 kilograms of water produce 80 grams of hydrogen if not reusing damp hydrogens water. These are real numbers from actual electrolysers. The theoretic values are different because they do not consider the moist or vaporised water left in the hydrogen from the electrolyser.

By weight the Water content directly after the electrolyser can be 5 times the hydrogen weight.

This leads to the importance of hydrogen purity and the hydrogen demister.

What can you do with stored hydrogen?

In this 2021 study about hydrogen the focus is on the building industry. What are useful hydrogen applications for houses.

We divide the residential hydrogen appliances in low tech hydrogen systems and high tech hydrogen systems.

High tech hydrogen systems

Figure 1 Home Power Solutions Picea Germany

If you want to be 100 % energy independent with hydrogen, you can use your excess solar energy to convert into hydrogen through an anion exchange membrane AEM electrolyser and than convert it to electricity through a hydrogen fuel cell. In order to store the hydrogen from your surplus photovoltaic you need to compress it and store it in cylinders under 200 bars. The fuel cell than takes it in times you need electricity by night or in winter. You can even use the fuel cell running temperature to heat up your home through a mechanical ventilation system. You need clean water to run the electrolyser. This AEM electrolyser uses potassium hydroxide KOH as catalyst which you need to buy every year.

Low tech hydrogen systems

A low tech hydrogen system thrives for simplicity and focuses on effectivity rather than efficiency.

If you like simple systems and you are living in the northern hemisphere, one of the biggest energy demands is heat in winter. Burning pure hydrogen only leaves water. There are already hydrogen gas boilers in Europe.
Simple Hydrogen generation through Proton Exchange Membrane Electrolysis stored in big tanks maybe underground is produced during summer.
Solar on the roof can convert 15% of the Sun while collecting the water for the electrolyser. In between there is a battery needed to avoid switching. The entire low tech hydrogen system is direct current DC. No expensive converters are needed. Depending on the place and energy demand a compressor can be added to the system but is not mandatory. The needed electrolysers are small in size and wattage.

What hydrogen products are on the market in 2021

This study focuses on small scale appliances. No hydrogen plant or industrial or huge comencial applications.
As with solar the technology will really kick in if there are low cost hydrogen appliances for average households.

Two main electrolyser types are ready to be purchased

If you want to buy hydrogen generators you have to decide for either AEM or PEM technology.

AEMPEM
Anion exchange membraneProton Exchange Membrane
KoH, NaOHPlatin, Iridium, Titanium
Strong base, corrosive, harmfulExpensive, rising prices, good investment
35 bar max100 bar max
Rainwater might do itDeionized water needed
3000040000 hr max lifespan
45 °C running temperature70 °C

Cost of electrolysers

To understand the cost of electrolysers we need to understand the necessary components

  • Electrolyser / Stag
    • Water system
    • Gas dehumidifier (hydrogen gas dryer / h2 demister)
    • Safety valves
    • Electrical equipment
    • Program

All these components together can be understood as hydrogen gas generators

  • Compressor
    • Piston
    • Metal hydrate compressor
  • Hydrogen Storage tanks, cylinders
    • Iron based hydrogen container
      • Liquid
        • Needs cryogen temperatures
      • Gaseous
        • Pressures from 35-350 bar
    • Metal hydride canister
      • Needs high temperatures
    • Composite materials

It is important to consider that there is no recycling for composite hydrogen cylinders like carbon fiber in resin. In the building industry steel containers are best in terms of price and circularity.

Renewable Hydrogen electrolysers with a smart program for compression and storage can be understood as hydrogen systems.

Still the appliances for the user are needed to close the loop between production, storing and consuming hydrogen.

  • Appliances
    • Hydrogen Fuel cell
      • Electricity
      • Water
      • Heat
    • Hydrogen boilers
    • Hydrogen stoves
    • Hydrogen grill
      • Heat
      • Water

Mobility

Electrolysers from 240 W to 2,5 kW cost from 2000 € to 5000€.
Hydrogen generators producing from 24 liter H2 per hour up to 2,6 m³ per hour cost from 10.000 Euro to 60.000 Euro.

Price for hydrogen systems, which mean including storage cost from day storage 46.000 Euro to seasonal storage for 67.000 Euro.

How to get prices for hydrogen electrolysers?

You only get the prices for hydrogen electrolysis if you ask a quote per mail. You find a bunch of hydrogen businesses online which haven't a price for their hydrogen technology. So it takes a long time to get prices for hydrogen technology.

Electrolyser prices are important to see if these hydrogen applications serve your needs and your money.

You can download the international hydrogen pricelist as pdf for free.

If you want the electrolyser price list as excel file write is in the field below.

TAYPE IN E-MAIL. WAIT A MOMENT, PLEASE.

DOWNLOAD LINK WILL SHOW UP (below e-mail adresse).
Auch interessant


    How can I compare electrolysis on the market?

    Within the international hydrogen pricelist, you get the technical data to compare electrolysis on the market.

    Data about the Hydrogen and Oxygen output pressure, estimated lifespan, simple cost benefit analysis is included in the list.

    Furthermore you get informations on:

    Leave a Reply

    Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *